Articles | Volume 2, issue 1
Research article
19 May 2021
Research article |  | 19 May 2021

Determination of hydrogen exchange and relaxation parameters in PHIP complexes at micromolar concentrations

Lisanne Sellies, Ruud L. E. G. Aspers, and Marco Tessari

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Field: Hyperpolarization | Topic: Pulse-sequence development
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Cited articles

Adams, R. W., Aguilar, J. A., Atkinson, K. D., Cowley, M. J., Elliott, P. I., Duckett, S. B., Green, G. G., Khazal, I. G., López-Serrano, J., and Williamson, D. C.: Reversible interactions with para-hydrogen enhance NMR sensitivity by polarization transfer, Science, 323, 1708–1711,, 2009. 
Appleby, K. M., Mewis, R. E., Olaru, A. M., Green, G. G., Fairlamb, I. J., and Duckett, S. B.: Investigating pyridazine and phthalazine exchange in a series of iridium complexes in order to define their role in the catalytic transfer of magnetisation from para-hydrogen, Chem. Sci., 6, 3981–3993,, 2015. 
Ardenkjær-Larsen, J. H., Fridlund, B., Gram, A., Hansson, G., Hansson, L., Lerche, M. H., Servin, R., Thaning, M., and Golman, K.: Increase in signal-to-noise ratio of > 10 000 times in liquid-state NMR, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 100, 10158–10163,, 2003. 
Balacco, G. and Marino, C.: The ultimate NMR experience, available at: (last access: 20 April 2021), 2005. 
Barskiy, D. A., Pravdivtsev, A. N., Ivanov, K. L., Kovtunov, K. V., and Koptyug, I. V.: A simple analytical model for signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) process, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 18, 89–93,, 2016. 
Short summary
Reversible para-hydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) is a technique to enhance NMR signals in solution, based on the association/dissociation of para-hydrogen and substrate molecules with/from an iridium catalyst. In this work we present an approach to measure NMR relaxation as well as rate constants of para-hydrogen association/dissociation with/from the iridium catalyst. These rates are important for understanding the different PHIP efficiencies observed for different substrate molecules.